Analyzing the Universe

About this course: Using publicly available data from NASA of actual satellite observations of astronomical x-ray sources, we explore some of the mysteries of the cosmos, including neutron stars, black holes, quasars and supernovae. We will analyze energy spectra and time series data to understand how these incredible objects work. We utilize an imaging tool called DS9 to explore the amazing diversity of astronomical observations that have made x-ray astronomy one of the most active and exciting fields of scientific investigation in the past 50 years. Each week we will explore a different facet of x-ray astronomy. Beginning with an introduction to the nature of image formation, we then move on to examples of how our imaging program, DS9, can aid our understanding of real satellite data. You will using the actual data that scientists use when doing their work. Nothing is "canned". You will be able to appreciate the excitement that astronomers felt when they made their important discoveries concerning periodic binary x-ray sources, supernovae and their remnants, and extragalactic sources that have shaped our understanding of cosmology.

Created by:  Rutgers the State University of New Jersey

Commitment6 weeks of study, 5 hours per week
How To PassPass all graded assignments to complete the course.
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Light and the Nature of Images....Plus, an Introduction to DS9
Welcome to Week 1 of "Analyzing the Universe!" This week we explore the nature of light, and how we get astronomical information from the images we obtain. The lectures and "wiki" material address these themes: light, image formation, and DS9. Dive right in!
7 videos4 readings
  1. Video: Course Overview
  2. Reading: Introduction
  3. Reading: Syllabus
  4. Reading: Light and the Nature of Images. Plus, an introduction using DS9
  5. Video: Lecture 1 The Nature of Images
  6. Video: Lecture 2 Image Formation
  7. Video: Lecture 3 Skipping Stones and X-ray Images
  8. Video: Lecture 4 The Perception of Images
  9. Video: Lecture 5 Introduction to DS9--Part I
  10. Video: Lecture 6 Introduction to DS9--Part II
  11. Reading: Week 1 Wiki
Graded: Quiz 1: Week 1
Basic Astronomical Data and a DS9 Smorgasbord
Welcome to week two of "Analyzing the Universe". This week we will be exploring some of the means we have at our disposal to find out many things about the stars. It is really quite incredible that these tiny pinpoints of light can yield so much information about their nature and about the structure of the Universe as a whole. And if this is your first visit to the course, welcome and jump right in!
5 videos2 readings
  1. Reading: DS9 and Astronomical Data
  2. Video: Week 2 - Lecture 1 The DS9 Smorgasbord--Part I
  3. Video: Lecture 2 The DS9 Smorgasbord--Part II
  4. Video: Lecture 3 "Lies, Damned Lies, and Statistics"
  5. Video: Lecture 4 Atomic Spectra, the Fingerprints of the Stars
  6. Video: Lecture 5 The Cosmic Distance Scale -- Part I
  7. Reading: Week 2 Wiki
Graded: Quiz 2: Week 2
Stellar Evolution and White Dwarfs
This week is our first in-depth look at an x-ray source, and it involves a white dwarf in a binary system. So sharpen up your detective skills, keep your copy of DS9 at the ready, and let's get down to business. It should be an exciting week. 
4 videos2 readings
  1. Reading: GK Per -- An in depth analysis
  2. Video: Week 3- Lecture 1 Putting It All Together-- The HR Diagram
  3. Video: Lecture 2 Of GK-Per and White Dwarfs, Part 1
  4. Video: Lecture 3 Of GK-Per and White Dwarfs, Part 2
  5. Video: Lecture 4 Of GK-Per and White Dwarfs, Part 3
  6. Reading: Week 3 Wiki
Graded: Quiz 3: Week 3
Orbits, Gravity, and Clocks in the Sky
This week we turn our attention to another fascinating cosmic source, discovered in the infancy of x-ray astronomy: Cen X-3. In so doing, we will see how binary stars can determine and influence many of the interesting and surprising features of our observations.
7 videos2 readings
  1. Reading: Clocks in the Sky
  2. Video: Week 4 - Lecture 1 Orbits
  3. Video: Lecture 2 A Matter of Some Gravity
  4. Video: Lecture 3 Of Hummingbirds, Trains and The Doppler Shift
  5. Video: Lecture 4 Clocks in the Sky-- Cen X-3, Part 1--Exosat
  6. Video: Lecture 5 Clocks in the Sky-- Cen X-3, Part 2
  7. Video: Lecture 6 Clocks in the Sky-- Cen X-3, Part 3
  8. Video: Lecture 7 Clocks in the Sky--Cen X-3, Part 4--Chandra
  9. Reading: Week 4 Wiki
Graded: Quiz 4: Week 4
Supernovae, Our Cosmic Recycling Centers
This week, we will be examining supernovae, and their remnants. These fascinating objects are the breeding grounds for future stars, and were the sources of virtually all the atoms that make up our solar neighborhood. Every atom of calcium in every bone in your body, for example, was once shot out of a supernova, billions of years ago.
2 videos2 readings
  1. Reading: Cosmic Recycling Centers
  2. Video: Week 5 - Lecture 1 Cosmic Recycling Centers and Cas-A, Part 1
  3. Video: Lecture 2 Cosmic Recycling Centers and Cas-A, Part 2: "Color it X-ray"
  4. Reading: Week 5 Wiki
Graded: Quiz 5: Week 5
To the Ends of the Universe; Quasars, 3C273, and beyond
This week we wrap things up with trips to galaxies and exotic objects, seen long ago and far away. The mysterious quasars provide clues about the way our Universe is evolving in time. They are incredible objects (actually, come to think of it, what isn't incredible in the x-ray sky?) discovered almost exactly a half century ago, quite by accident. We will explore the astonishingly prodigious x-ray output of 3C 273, one of the nearest ones, at a mere 2.5 billion light years away.
5 videos3 readings
  1. Reading: Coming into the home stretch
  2. Video: Week 6 - Lecture 1 The Time Machine, Part 1
  3. Video: Lecture 2 The Time Machine, Part 2
  4. Video: Lecture 3 The Time Machine, Part 3
  5. Video: Lecture 4 The Time Machine, Part 4
  6. Video: Lecture 5 To the Ends of the Universe: The Cosmic Distance Scale -- Part II
  7. Reading: Week 6 Wiki
  8. Reading: Wrapping it all up
Graded: Quiz 6: Week 6
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